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Your PTO is essential to getting certain tasks done with your tractor. If your PTO isn’t engaging, you’re not completely out of luck because there are some things you can do to fix it.
Two common reasons that a PTO won’t engage are installation issues and owner misuse. Addressing these possibilities first might be the only thing needed. Additional problems could arise if the switch is showing no continuity. Check for continuity using a multimeter.
Other measures can be taken to prevent future engagement issues, while also coming to better understand your PTO shaft. Mechanics can get pricey, so being able to fix your PTO shaft yourself will save you time and money.
What Is a PTO?
PTO stands for Power Take-Off. PTO can refer to one of many methods for taking power from a power source and transferring the power to an implement or separate machine. On a tractor, the PTO is a stub shaft that connects to the drive shaft of the implement/attached machine. When properly engaged, the stub shaft and driveshaft will rotate together at either 540 RPM or 1000 RPM.
There are three types of PTO control for tractors: Transmission, Live, and Independent.
A PTO control that is directly connected to a tractor’s transmission is a PTO transmission control. This is one of the earlier forms of PTO, and it is unique in that the PTO will only run while the tractor’s clutch is released. Should you choose to slow down and take the tractor out of gear, you will find that the PTO has stopped running.
A live PTO utilizes a two-stage clutch. This eliminates the problems a transmission PTO faces of the PTO turning off when out of gear by allowing for two options: you can either press the clutch halfway, to disengage the transmission but still keep the PTO running, or you can push the clutch all the way and shut off the transmission and PTO.
The independent PTO controls the PTO shaft with an entirely different clutch. Just like with the live PTO, you can operate both transmission and PTO separately.
Why Won’t My PTO Engage and How to Fix It
Note: These are general troubleshooting suggestions. More specific suggestions are dependent on your tractor’s make, model, and year.
Basic Reasons The PTO Won’t Engage
Your problem could be as simple as your transmission oil levels or air pressure levels being too low. If that’s the case, make the necessary adjustments and check to see if the PTO is engaging again. If not, continue troubleshooting.
If your PTO is electric, first check for a bad electrical connection. Your electrical connection can be improved by replacing defective or damaged wires and cleaning corroded terminals or connections. There might be something obstructing the circuit. Check the hoses and screens for obstructions or kinks and remedy either problem.
Check if you have the right PTO for the actuation being used. If not, that will need to be reconciled.
The PTO Clutch Won’t Engage
If your PTO clutch seems to not be working and you aren’t sure why, one of the reasons could be that it doesn’t have sufficient voltage to run.
Find the clutch drive assembly and check your owner’s manual to locate where the battery is on your machinery. Once that is found, use a voltmeter to check voltage. Should your PTO shaft not be getting enough voltage, it will not engage. For an in-depth description of how to properly do this, an article can be found here to give better directions. You will want your voltmeter to read above a 12.5—anything lower and you will want to charge it.
Another thing to look for is the in-line fuse that runs between all of the electrical wiring and the PTO clutch assembly. This will all be found under the deck. After locating it, unscrew the cap wires and take a look inside at the fuse filament. You might need to replace the fuse with the exact same ampere rating as the original if the fuse appears to have blown and is a black color.
The PTO Grinds but Won’t Engage
In this case, there’s nothing you can do externally to fix it. This is a problem that typically means you’ll need to replace your clutch pack.
The clutch pack gets damaged when you overload the PTO. This can also damage the PTO clutching rings and shaft, resulting in both being replaced as well.
If you think this is the problem, you should go to a mechanic that has experience with your particular tractor.
The Clutch Is Engaged and the PTO Light Is on, but the PTO Shaft Isn’t Turning
If your PTO is mechanical with levers, check the linkage between the hand lever and the clutch. If that is bent, the clutch won’t be able to engage.
You can also check to make sure the link that connects the driveshaft to the rear gearbox is not bent or broken as well. The rear gearbox has a lever that controls the shifter. The shifter is what engages and disengages the PTO. If the linkage between the shaft and the shifter is bent or disconnected, you won’t have control of the PTO.
“You’ll see a shaft going through the box located on the top left, and looking from the back, the shaft moves the shifter inside. You might need to try disconnecting the outside rod and using vise grips to exercise the lever.”Bobbyfordkubota.com
If the linkages aren’t the problem, try turning the PTO shaft manually. When you shift it in one direction you should be able to turn it easily. When you shift it in the other direction, you should have a much harder time turning it because it will be connected to the PTO drive shaft and clutch.
Be Aware of PTO Hazards
PTO shafts can be dangerous, with countless stories of people becoming injured through interactions with these. Most of these accidents are resultant from clothing getting caught in the PTO stub that is engaged and left unguarded.
This happens when the operator is busy and happens to forget the PTO is engaged or maybe is not aware that it is. Should clothing, jewelry, or long hair get caught in the shaft, the fast rotations will cause you to be entangled in the shaft and thereby result in spinal and neck injuries, dislocations, broken bones, etc. Be extremely careful when interacting with your PTO shaft.
Should your PTO shaft continue to cause you problems that none of the solutions above are able to resolve, then it would become necessary to contact your local mechanic.